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Freedom of migration and difference between city and countryside
--from the point of view of Marxism
ABSTRACT: The problem of the freedom of migration is the very reflection to the biggest problem of equity and of class of China. It is impossible for one to choose one's birthplace, but everyone has a right to pursue happiness, if one who was born in a countryside or in a small and middle city not able of having oneself be an inhabitant of city or of metropolis freely ,the society one lives in is an extreme inequitable one because in which it has be set up an impassable chasm for the people's mobility between city and countryside and between metropolis and small and middle city, the people staying on the two side of this chasm forms naturally the different classes, if it could be defined class as the groups with different interests. The problem of the freedom of migration, therefore, is the very key to analyse the social structure of today's China and to understand her current situation and her future. With a point of view of Marxism, this article analysed the reasons for engender , the negative results and the method for resolve of the problem of this problem , criticized the contradiction in respect of this problem between the model of the real socialism and the model of the ideal socialism.
According to Marxism,the elimination of differences between city and countryside ,between workers and peasants, between manual labour and mental labour, is one of the important characteristics of a communist society.(2)This article is focus on exploring an approach to eliminate the difference between city and countryside by way of recognizing a freedom of migration in lagislation and eliminating gradually a scissor difference in price between industrial and agricultural products in economic policy in socialist society-- the primary stage of the communist society.
The freedom of migration,namely the freedom by which one can choose his living place at will,including an internal one and an international one ,as to the latter, the greater parts of various countries limit it;as to the former,the greater parts of countries recognize it.According to a statistics to 142 written constitutions in the world,among them there are 81 constitutions providing for the freedom of migration,make up 57% of the overall.(3)In the chinese history of constitution since the constitutionlism toward the end of Qing dynasty,there were 12 constitutions recognized the freedom of migration,among them there were 5 constitutions with the nature of new democratism and socialism, including the constitution of PRC 1954.(4)But a phenomena not to be ignored is that the great parts of constitutions in socialist countries not recognize the freedom of migration,the constitutions of Ex-Czechoslovakia and Ex-Yugoslavia not recognized this right ,but after they carried out an economic reform, their constitutions turn on to recognize it, above-said phenomena shows an intimate relationship between the freedom of migration and a kind of economic system. In certain sense it can be said that the difference between the socialist country which not recognize the freedom of migration and the capitalist countries which recognize it , is the one in allocating mechanism for resource,the former allocates the resource by means of the high-concentrated plan ;the latter does the same thing by means of the market mechanism. One of the emphases in the reform of the economic system which is going on in the most partes of socialist countries,is that changing the method of allocating resource from the plan-allocation to the market-allocation.As everyone knows that the resource can be divided into material resource and manpower resource,I think that the freedom of migration is a legal means to allocate the manpower resource with market mechanism,it is imaginable therefore that if the model of allocating resource were changed, the legislator's attitude to the freedom of migration will also be changed correspondingly, this is a fact that was proved by the experience of some ex-socialist country.We have seen that in the process of the reform of the economic system in China,with a change in allocating model for material resource , it shall be claimed to change the allocating model for manpower resource and to recognize the freedom of migration in the constitutional law.
It is also tenable to use above-said conclusion to analyse the change in legal attitude to freedom of migration in China.All the two constitutional documents promulgated in early period of foundation of PRC,the Common Programma of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and the Constitution of PRC 1954,declared that all citizens of PRC has a right to migrate freely .But all the other constitutions laid down after the accomplishment of Socialist Reform to the Capitalist Industry and Commerce and the adoption of the high-concentrated planned economic system,got rid of the provision about the freedom of migration .Before 1956,China carried out the state-capitalism,the society was with the new-democratist nature,the economy was quite with the nature of market ,therefore the allocating method for manpower resource also belonged to the type of market economy,so the constitution recognized the freedom of migration.After 1956,the allocating model for resource became the one that every thing was controlled by the State's plan,naturally the freedom of migration,the legal means of allocating a manpower resource by means of market, was cancelled.The economic reform which was carried out since 1979,now is going on in China,was intended to construct a new economic system with the nature of market-regulating,in the process of changing the economic model,according to the principle that super-constructure is decided by the economic base,after the change in the economic base,the super-construct should also be changed correspondingly,a restoration of the provision about the freedom of migration in the constitution of China,therefore is a necessary demand of the new economic system to its legal environment.
The constitution of PRC 1982 currently in effect has not stipulated for the freedom of migration,when it was drafted, the draftmen have considered this problem ,finally they have not stipulated for it because they thought that it is too difficulty to realize .(5)
Without doubt, at present condition,it is indeed quite difficult to realize the freedom of migration immediately,but the difficulty is not the reason for having nothing to done, the task before the new generation of marxist is that affirm the realization of the freedom of migration is an effective approach to extinguish the difference between city and countryside according to the Marxism's communist ideal to extinguish "the three big differences", furthermore analyse why it is impossible to realize it in today's China and find out a method to get rid of this cause,present a practical scheme for realize it steadly and accelerate the step to realize the communist ideal.
The freedom of migration also could be divided into other two aspects:one is the freedom of migration between city and countryside;the other is the freedom of migration between cities.Beyond doubt, the realization of the freedom of migration is based on that there is no great disparity in developing level between city and countryside, otherwise the freedom of migration would make a great number of rural population inflow in the cities with high level of development , would bring out many social drawbacks such as an explosion of urban population. In China ,why it is impossible at present to realize the freedom of migration between city and countryside? The essential cause is that as a result of running on the planned economy long-termly in this country since 1956, existing a great disparity in developing level between city and countryside.
After the victory of October Revolution in Russia,the new-born sovietic political power was confront with the problem of how to realize a socialist industrialization.As to the problem of the source of funds for the industrialization, E. A. Preobrarenski presented a law of socialist primitive accumulation, he thought that the primitive capital for the capitalist industrialization was gotten by means of plundering colonies and trafficing negro slaves,etc., the socialist country can't do like this,the primitive capital for the socialist industrialization shall be gotten only by means of expanding a scissor difference in price between industrial and agricultural products.(6) The theory of socialist primitive accumulation influenced the economic policy of USSR,and became an important component of her traditional economic model. Stalin accepted totally this theory,he said ,to realize the industrialization, the peasants must hand over a contribution to the State."besides pay the common tax --the direct one and the indirect one--also the peasants must pay a kind of extra tax,namely when they buy an industrial product,they must pay a little more ,when they sale their agricultural products,they must receive a little less".(7)This sovietic policy to enlarge artificially the scissor difference in price between industrial and agricultural products ,ran counter to an elementary principle that the comodities must be exchanged each other in equal value, abused the price as a lever to redistribute the national income,"the price of agricultural products was listed as lower than their values greatly,thereby amassed the peasants' surplus products on the hand of the State most-partly or wholly .It is very convenient for the State to do this because of existing an economic model of high-concentrated and of taking the administrative manage as a key link.Just as the words of some commorade: the degree that the price deviated from the value in socialist countries is usually more grave than that in capitalist countries.(8)"Stalin's this policy to enlarge artificially the scissor difference has made a distructive influence to the economy of EX-URSS,specially to her agriculture,meanwhile her heavy-industry has had a lopsided development , URSS that once was a country with a tradition of exporting agricultural products became a country which made own agricultural products supply depend on the importation,and made the difference between city and countryside be bigger, as a result of this, the constitution of EX-URSS couldn't recognize the freedom of migration, specially it was difficult to recognize the freedom of migration between city and countryside.
After 1956, China has copied almost totally the economic model of URSS,(9)also has arrived in China the policy to enlarge artificially the scissor difference in order to offer an accumulation of capital for giving priority to develop the heavy-industry with the other parts of the sovietic economic model. According to a statistical datum,the State has got 600 billions yuan from the countryside by way of the scissor difference in price since the foundation of PRC,among the rural population, every one was taken away 500 yuan on an average.(10)In 1985, the State has got 6 billions yuan from countryside in the same way,every countryman was taken away 70 yuan on an average,in consideration of the average income per capita in rural area in 1988 was only 545 yuan ,the income of scissor difference which the State has gotten from the countryside was sizable.The State invests the income of scissor difference in cities,making urban population has considerable privileges ,once one become an urban resident, one can get 120 yuan subsidy for grain and oil from the State every year.(11)The State provides the urban population 50 billions yuan subsidy for food every year,this expense make up 1/4 of the total annual expenditure of the State.(12)The most part of urban inhabitants also can enjoy the hausing for which one only pays a symbolic rental, the free medical service,the educational service in which invested by the State,various urban public utilities, the arrangements and trainings for employment,the labour protection and insurance,all these are the treatments inaccessible to rural population.Indeed, the State has done some works to reduce the scissor difference,for example ,it has raised the purchase price of agricultural products for several times.Before "Great Cultural Revolution",the State has spent 1 billion yuan to raise the purchase price of agricultural products every year,intending to reduce the scissor difference in price between industrial and agricultural products and to set-off a new difference in the price parities between them which arise from that the incremental speed of industrial labour productivity is more fast than that of agricultural labour productivity,but during the 10 years of "Great Cultural Revolution",the purchase price of agricultural products was almost frozen up,resulting in an enlargement of scissor difference in price between industrial and agricultural products to some extent.Some economist calculated that in 1979 the range that the price of agricultural products was lower than their value amounted to 41.1%,this was higher than the range of 38.8% in 1958.This situation harmed gravely peasants' interests,dampening peasants' productive enthusiasm ,hindering the development of agricultural production , enlarging the difference between city and countryside.In view of this situation, the State decided to raise the purchase price of agricultural products at big margin since 1979,in this year the prices of 18 kinds of main agricultural products were raised to 24.8% on an average .Until 1982,in comparison with 1978, the real level of price of agricultural products, which include the list price, the add price and the negotiated price, was elevated to 41.5%,the difference in level in income and in level in living between workers and peasants reduced to some extent, nevertheless, in 1982, the difference in level in income between workers and peasants still was 1.85:1,the difference in level in consumption between workers and peasants still was 2.14:1, thus it can be seen that the difference between city and countryside is still very great, notwithstanding the State has done some works to lessen it.(13) It is observable that there is a tendency to restore the original price parities between industrial and agricultural products in China in recent years, the scissor difference in price between industrial and agricultural products was expanded again more.Begin with 1985 , the price of industrial products gone up at big margin,resulting in a new enlargement of the scissor difference in price between main agricultural products such as grain, etc.and industrial products .In 1987,in comparison with 1984,the purchase price of grain gone up 9.6%, but the retail price of industrial products for countrymen's daily life and the price of agricultural productive material gone up respectively 20.4% and 26.9% on an average.(14)From 1980 to 1987,the price of grain risen in 43.7% in all,meanwhile the prices of chemical fertilizer and of pesticide risen in respectively 80.5% and 245.5% altogether.(15)Why the endeavors done by the State for lessening the scissor difference have not be achieved an ideal effect? the cause is that almost every time of rising in purchase price of agricultural products is always accompanied by a rising in price of industrial products for agricultural use, the advantages which peasants got from a rising in purchase price of agricultural products was set-off, they even lost the interests at hand. As a result of enlarging the scissor difference there is an unreasonable relationship between city and countryside which renders it impossible to realize the freedom of migration between city and countryside.
Here I would like to make some discuss about the problem of the freedom of migration between cities.A phenomena that there is an extreme unequilibrium in developing level between chinese cities is well-known by everyone.Because of existing a totalitarian power of the central government and of a big shortage of developing funds,a city's developing degree depends usually to the political factor other than the economic one .Relying on its political power,the State grasps financial income in quantity from some city,then uses this funds as a support to the development of other cities, specially to that of the capital ,make some cities have an ultra-development at the expense of other cities. For example, Shanghai,the greatest industrial city in China,is only possess of a fixed assets worthing of 40 billions yuan(not include the fixed assets of Baoshan Steel and Iron Company),but turns over the State a financial income in large quantities every year.In a period of 9 years since 1979, the City of Shanghai turned over Treasury 170 billions yuan, only in the year of 1988, this City turned over above-said Ministry 12 billions yuan as a contribution.Indeed Shanghai is the greatest capital exporter in China,but the poorness of Shanghai's municipal facilities is well-known by the world,a deficit in basical facilities amounts to 40 billions yuan.(16)Once there was not a bridge over Huangpu River,that is a cause of horrible disaster happened on Lujiazui Ferry on this river.(17)As a contrast, Beijing, a city without a river, possesses at least 50 bridges of grade separation,but the financial income of this city cannot be mentioned in the same breath with that of Shanghai, in 1985 she earned own financial income only 1.2 billion, among which almost a half (500 millions) was spent on the subsidy for the living of the urban residents in this city.Only because of her position of political centre,Peking has the best municipal facilities in China.According to a statistic,every resident of Beijing enjoys 550 yuan subsidy every year on an average.(18)The May 1, 1987,the Labour Day of this year,only for supplying the residents of Beijing the hairtail at a parity price,the Municipal Government of Peking spent 15 millions yuan for the subsidy,this expense just amounted to the costs for building up a bridge of grade of separation. Moreover the residents of Beijing even more enjoy the public facilities of first class in China,such as the subway, numerous parks and a lot of grassland and forest, according to a recent statistic ,the proportion of green caverage in Beijing reached in 23%, taking the first place among chinese cities,each resident of Beijing enjoys 6 square metre of grassland on an average ,in fact,before several years the costs of each square metre of grassland reached in 24 yuan.If put a common street of Beijing in any provincial capital, perhaps it were the best street. The development always is a good thing, the problem is: where comes from the money for developing ? It is obvious that the ultra-development of Beijing not depends on her small financial income,but depends on the political power and on the money which comes from other cities and various provinces. In the history of China,there were a lot of examples that a city got an ultra-development through a political approach,for example,the City of Changan in Tang Dinasty was bigger in 8 times than today's City of Xian(which was built in Ming dinasty)in the scale,the City of Bianliang in Song Dinasty was bigger in 36 times than the today's City of Kaifeng.These cities had a development without sufficient economic reason, once lost a support of a political power, they declined rapidly. It can be expected that once Beijing lose her position of political centre,she shall have an anxious fate.Now there is not a statistic about how much subsidy enjoys an urban resident of other chinese cities, but there isa datum indicating that a person who emigrates from countryside in a city, can get 120 yuan subsidy for grain and oil from the State each year , because of the subsidy for grain and oil always occupy the main part of total sum of subsidies, even though adds up other item of subsidy in this sum,it is presumable that the totality of subsidy that was enjoyed by a urban inhabitant of provincial cities is impossible to be equal to that of the residents of Beijing .It is should not be surprised that once one enters in Beijing,he always seeks for dewelling there permanently by every possible means.In 1990,the personnel of organs in various levels in Beijing was approximately saturated,furthmore the State implemented a policy to limit the graduats remain in the capital,but in this year among the 32000 graduats there were 16000 persons remain in Beijing for work,just made up 50% of the totality,(19) it is immaginable the situation in past years .The economic problem in China always seems to be the political one at the same time ,because of the good or the bad of living environment in cities not depends on the economic factor,but on the political one, some of cities can get an artificial blood transfusion, other cities are only looked on as a blood source for this transfusion, the difference between the capital and local cities, between metropolis and small and middle cities were enlarged too greatly, the freedom of migration between cities lost a base for realization.
Without doubt, the mistaken economic policy to enlarge the defference between city and countryside, between cities runs counter to the communist principle to eliminate the "three big defferences" which was presented by Marx and Engles,not only deprived chinese citizens of the freedom of migration,but also brought out a series of anxious social-economic problems.
The first one is the problem of" blind wandering".After the Spring Festival 1989,a great number of countrymen poured in cities to seek for jobs,made the system of trasportation and the basic facilities in the developed areas suffer a great pressure,there was a period in which the 70% railway passegers were the work-seekers of peasants.That the rural population flowed in cities on a large scale made someone panic-struck,they held this phenomena as an argument to demonstrate that it can't be recognized that the freedom of migration,stood for going back the old way that countrymen were pinned on the ground.It is obvious that if do like this,shall violate not only the general requirement to establish a market for human resource in the new order of market economy, but also the general law of urbanization of population in a transition from an agricultural society to an industrial one.As a matter of fact,the problem of "blind wandering" is the very result of the mistaken economic policy and of the legal provision denying the freedom of migration. Facing the greatest contrast in living level between city and countryside, the 150 millions surplus manpower in countryside sought for instinctly a life as an urban inhabitant ,with an actual act to abandon the agricultural work and to enter in cities,they made a protest against the unreasonable economic policy and the constitution denying the freedom of migration.
The second one is the problem that many workers are in employment but have no work to do.In China ,people calls this kind of workers as "unemployed at his working post",in other words, they have an occupation, but they have nothing to do. In chinese cities there are 15 millions persons of this kind,except this still are there 15 millions persons waiting for a job .In the meantime,there are 30 millions of working posts waiting for hands in urban enterprises .(20)The urban inhabitants are not willing to be engaged in an occupation with a big intensity of labour and in a so-called "humble"one, because of they have various garantee which based on the financial subsidy from the State,they prefer to live in idle than to take a job about which they don't think that it conforms to their standards.In many of urban enterprises ,notwithstanding a lot of workers stay in idle,but the "humble" works in the factories were reserved to be done by the temporary workers who usually are peasants.(21)It is the greatest evil that the surplus labours coexist with the shortage of hands in working posts at the same time.If the freedom of migration were recognized, that the rural surplus labours could compete equally the working opportunities in cities with the urban inhabitants,shall coerce the latter into changing the idea that prefer to do high-ranking work rather than lowly one in choice of occupation, elevating the labour productivity and resolving the problem of "unemployed at his working post."
The third one is the problem that the chinese qualified personnel has a big difficulty in mobility.Because of not recognizing the freedom of migration, the rate of move of population in China is very low, every chinese has only 1.7 time of move for life on an average, the proportion of population in move is lower than 2.4% every year in all through the country .As a contrast of this,in United States ,there are 25% population in move every year, in France, Ex-Federal Germania, Sweden,in all these countries there are 10% population in move every year.(22)The low common rate of move decided a low rate of move of the chinese personnel of science and technology ,this rate is lower than 2%, the average number of time of move for life to a personnel of science and technology is lower 1 time.(23) Because of existing a great of differences between cities in developing level, some university in cities with high level of development receives only the candidates who possess the local residence cards, If a graduate wants to take a job in one of these cities after his graduation,he had to accept a condition that not asks for transfering his wife in this city.The above-said situation impedes to shape a market of the qualified personnel,infringing the citizen's rights of receiving an education at his own choice and of autonomy in matrimony,and that fostering an accumulation of inertia in the national psychology which makes people prefer stability to change and attach to the native land and not be willing adventure.
The fourth one is the problem of a decline of local great cities.Still Shanghai is the most typical example to this problem.The causes that Shanghai was changed from an international metropolis to a city of second class are numerous, among them there is an important one,namely, the cancellation to the freedom of emigration made the integral quality of shanghainese drop out.The freedom of migration once brought the persons of all corners of land gather in Shanghai,threw the shanghainese and their culture into shape of mordernity by way of the intricate contacts,the frictions and the competitions in political, economy, culture and living, brought about a vitality to Shanghai. The cancellation to the freedom of migration blocked up an unimpeded tunnel by which the elite and the qualified personnel outside Shanghai flowed in, made Shanghai close up,as a result of this ,the shanghainese lost an opening spirit formed in the competition with nonnative emigrations with various cultural backgrounds,the decline of person caused the decline of the city.
The fifth one is the problem of couple living apart.Because of the charactristic of their careers, the chinese intellectuals specially suffer from this.According to a datum disclosed by National Ministry of Labour and Human Resource of PRC: "at present, there are 360 thousands couples living apart in the carders and the staff and workers in all through country."(24)The abnormal phenomena of husband and wife living apart is the very result of denying the freedom of migration.These couples endure long-termly an anxiety of missing,their matrimony has more form than substance, their parents and children have no good care.This abnormal phenomena also induces an elevation in the rate of divorce.
The sixth one is the problem of an explosion of urban population.Because of not recognizing the freedom of migration,which is caused by the existance of the biggest difference between city and countryside that do harm to the peasants' productive activity, there is a shortage of agricultural products in China, the State had to supply agricultural products for urban population in the way of ration system,as a result of this,the urban residence card has not only a function of census administration, but also a function by which people gets agricultural products at a lower price(the country in which a residence card has this function in the world are only North Corea,Benin and China), people regards the urban residence card as a voucher by which obtain considerable subsidy for living from the State,the urban inhabitants grip it tightly and are not willing to give it up,on the other hand,the countrymen go all out to get it,now the residence cards of cities with different levels of development shape up different prices in black markets.As this,it is perilous for the urban inhabitants to emigrate from there,they prefer to stay in there without both ambitions and risks,even if emigrate from there by absolute necessity,they usually offered a condition that it must reserve for themself the original urban residence cards ,but meanwhile the rural residents think of way constantly to shoulder their way in cities,It is natural to happen a population explosion in cities.Instead,if it were permited that people migrates freely ,changing the situation of shortage in agricultural products and getting rid of the function of a residence card as a means of obtaining agricultural products at lower price,it could look to ease up this phenomena, the reason is very simply:if an urban residence card not represents any privilege at all,if one emigrates from a city, one still has an opportunity to migrate in there again,the urban inhabitants would become to dare emigrate,the countrymen should not regard an urban residence card as so important.
From above-said it can be infered that,whether can realize the freedom of migration or not is basically an economic problem ,only it shall be resolved by means of economy. To eliminate totally the difference between city and countryside is a task to be accomplished in the advanced stage of communist society,the requirement of eliminating at once all the difference between city and countryside in the socialist society, the primary stage of the communist society,is unrealistic.But in the period of transition,the State should make great efforts to do something in aid of realizing the goals of the advanced stage of communist society and should not have nothing to do or do something quite the contrary ,any economic policy to enlarge artificially the difference between city and countryside is very a mock and a betray to the fundamental programme of communism.We can't abstain from talking about the goal to eliminate the difference between city and countryside and realize the freedom of migration only because they are quite difficult to realize, talking about these goals at least shows that we still remember them ,this is the very first step to spare no efforts to realize them. For the today's chinese government ,a recognition of the freedom of migration in the constitution, not only means a transformation in the alloating machanism for human resource after the economic reform ,but also means that some practical step was be took for realizing the goal to eliminate the diference between city and countryside,this is a more important significance in the thing. To obtain a realistic base for realizing the freedom of migration, the State should adjust the relevent economic policy,practically raising the purchase price of agricultural products at big margin,diminishing and even eliminating the scissor difference in price between industrial and agricultural products,making the peasants sale their products out at a price conforming to its value so as to stimulate their productive activity , making the agricultural labourer can get a profit as other labourer in other trades and making the peasants therefore keep their mind on agricultural working.A elevation of the productive activity of peasants should bring about a great increase in the total amount of agricultural products supply,once it be changed that the situation of shortage in agricultural products supply and the demand of market can be satisfied sufficiently,the State could cancel the ration system in supply of agricultural products to urban population, undoing itself from a great financial burden in this respect, dipeling a vicious circle that was brought about by the artificial enlargement of scissor difference: the shortage of agricultural products--the urban residence card become a voucher by which people can obtain agricultural products at lower price--the difference between city and countryside was further enlarged--the realization of the freedom of migration between city and countryside become more difficult.There is a strange phenomena in countryside of China: a person who engages with an agricultural working earnestly is almost impossible to become rich,as a peasants could become rich only by way of engaging with an industry and a commerce and a side-line,a reaction of peasants to this is that let the farmlands not plough up and change own direction to other line of business,even in Jiangsu Province and Zhejiang Province,the most important places of source of revenue of successive dynasties since long ago,and the most fertile lands for agriculture in China,it also sprung up many farmlands abandoned and not be cultivated, this is a very startling fact.I think that once it be adopted that a policy to eliminate the scissor difference,a new economic lever shall conduct peasants to return back their farmland and take agriculture as a pleasure,they could make themself be rich by means of agricultural working .Meantime,the State should reduce and even call off the subsidy to urban inhabitants and cut down their sense of superiority,elevating the labour productivity in cities.The State could use the funds which were spent formerly on subsidy for living of urban inhabitants as an investment in countryside for establishing some public utility ,improving the living condition in countryside and making rural inhabitants stabilize.The reduction of the difference between city and countryside should create a condition for realizing the freedom of migration between city and countryside.
The State should carry out a policy to shrink the artificial difference between cities, leting the development and the improvement of condition of different cities become a result of economic factor, other than that of political one, canceling the artificial transfusion of blood to some city.In the distributive relationship to public revenue between the central and the localities,the State should put in practice a system by which the central take over a part of local revenue of various provinces and cities at an uniform and fixed percentage so as to get rid of the phenomena of "whiping a fast bull",namely a locality earns more, it must hand over more, avoiding to cause an inequality in suffering and in gaining between localities in order to extinguish the conflicts between localities and between cities.The reduction of the difference between cities shall create a presupposition for realizing the freedom of migration between cities. The State should put in practice of a strategy of urbanization.The history of modern industrialized countries shows that the urbanization is the only way for modernizationi,it is certain that China couldn't be an exception.Furthermore a city only reach in certain dimension,her public utilities can be used sufficiently and get a good economic effects.Only by way of urbanization ,the State could seek for an outlet for 150 millions rural surplus labour.The strategy of urbanization must produce a demand to law to recognize the freedom of migration.
A realization of the freedom of migration presupposes a practise of the policy to eliminate the obstacles to realize it,once they were removed,it should be considered to revise the constitution of China corrently in vigor and in which it shall be added the following provision: Every citizen of PRC has a right to migrate freely . ------------------------------------------------------------------
(1)The author is a professor of South-Central University of Political Science and law in Wuhan, PRC,Now he is acting as a visiting professor in the Dipartememnto di Storia e Teoria del Diritto, Universita' degli Studi di Roma "Tor Vergata".
(2)Cfr.Pen Wanchun:"The Dialectical Materialism and the Historical Materialism", Beijing, 1985, P.548.
(3)Cfr.Henc van Maarseveen /Ger van der Tang:" Written Constitutions:A Computerized Comparative Study" (traslation in chinese), Beijing, 1987, P.144.
(4)According to the statistics made by Chen Hefu in his works of "All the Constitutions in the Chinese History:Edited according to a Typology", Beijing, 1980.
(5)Cfr.Xiao Weiyun:"A Study to the New Constitution in Comparison with Several Previous Constitutons". in "The Collected Works of Chinese Legal Science", Beijing,1984, P.132.
(6)Cfr.Laszlo Szamuely:" First Models of theSocialist EconomicSystems",(translation in chinese), Changsha, 1988,
(7)"All of Works of Stalin"(translation in chinese), Beijing Vol.13, P.45.
(8)Cfr.Ma Hong:"On socialist Commodity Economy", Beijing, 1987, P.179.
(9)Cfr.Zhao Dexing:"The Outline of Economic History of PRC", Wuhan, 1988,P.135.
(10)Cfr.Gao Rongkun:" A Study to the Policy Differentiating City and Countryside in interests," Thesis of Master Degree of Institute of Postgraguates , Academy of Social Sciences of China, 1990, P.36.
(11)Cfr.Jin Zhengrong and Ren Zhemin:"The Population Tranfering from Agriculture to other Trades Increases Sharply in Our Country and It Needs a Tight Control", in "Guangming Daily", 3 March 1989.
(12)Cfr.Guo Shutian and Liu Chunbing:" The Dual Structural Society,The Relationship between City and Countryside,Industrialization and Urbanization",in "Manuscripts about the Rural Economy",no.6 1988.
(13) ibidem note 7,PP.202-203.
(14)Cfr.Yu Taihou:"The Tendency of Restoration of the Price Parities between Industrial and Agricultural Products in Our Country at Present", in "North-east Gazette of Economy", 20 feburuary 1990.
(15)ibidem note 9,P22.
(16)According to "The Abstracts" ,22 november 1989.
(17)It is gratified that now the magnificent bridges Nangpu and Yangpu were erected over Huangpu River and that the State has made a great decision to open the part of Shanghai on the east of Huangpu River(Pudong).
(18)According to "Chinese Women's Daily", 6, november 1988.
(19)According to "Chinese Youth's Daily" , 27 july 1990.
(20)ibidem note 11.
(21)The State sets a limitative quota for using temporary workers every year.
(22)Cfr."A Perspective to the Chinese System of Haushold Register", in "The Window to South Wind",no. 8 1988.
(23)According to "People's Daily" ,12 March 1989.
(24)Cfr. Shu Yu:"The Happiness and the Anxiety of the Couples Living Apart",in "People's Daily", 1 March 1989.